Perillyl alcohol decreases the frequency and severity of convulsive-like behavior in the adult zebrafish model of acute seizures

Arlindo César Matias Pereira, Brenda Lorena Sánchez-Ortíz, Ester Lopes de Melo, Lorane Izabel da Silva
Hage-Melim, Raphaelle Sousa Borges, Xuebo Hu, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho

Abstract

This research aimed to assess the effect of perillyl alcohol (PA) on convulsive behavior in vivo using adult zebrafish (Danio rerio, both sexes). The seizures were induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) intraperitoneally at 170 mg/kg, and diazepam (DZP) was used as the control anticonvulsant (2 mg/kg, oral); PA was tested at 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg orally. The groups had ten animals per group (total n = 60), observed for 10 minutes after seizure induction. We manually appraised typical seizure phenotypes for quantification and used an animal tracking software (Toxtrac) to assess the motor parameters. Next, we sought to find a mechanism of action for PA anticonvulsant activity in silico using a structure-based activity prediction server and molecular docking. The results show that PTZ induced seizure-like behavior in all untreated animals with hyperlocomotion episodes, seizure itself, posture loss, and immobility. DZP inhibited the seizures in all animals of the positive control group. PA, in turn, inhibited the occurrence of seizures in a dose-dependent manner, with frequencies of 90%, 70%, and 40% (for 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively). The PA treatments also decreased several seizure endpoints in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the difference of the group treated with highest dose of PA was statistically significant compared with the negative control group for all the endpoints assessed (p < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis). The in silico analyses suggested that PA can affect the GABAergic system, which might be involved in its anticonvulsant activity, but other mechanisms cannot be ruled out. Overall, our results suggest an anticonvulsant potential in perillyl alcohol.

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